### (1) Weight and Pressure of the Air

51. Weight of Air.—It is said that savages are unaware of the presence of air. They feel the wind and hear and see it moving the leaves and branches of the trees, but of air itself they have little conception.
To ordinary observers, it seems to have no weight, and to offer little resistance to bodies passing through it. That it has weight may be readily shown as follows: (See Fig. 29.) If a hollow metal sphere, or a glass flask, provided with tube and stopcock, be weighed when the stopcock is open, and then after the air has been exhausted from it by an air pump, a definite loss of weight is noticeable.
Fig. 29.—Proof that air has weight.
If the volume of the sphere is known and it is well exhausted of air, a fair approximation of the weight of air may be obtained. Under "standard conditions," which means at the freezing temperature and a barometric pressure of 76 cm., a liter of air weighs 1.293 g. while 12 cu. ft. of air weigh approximately 1 lb.
52. Pressure of Air.—Since air has weight it may be supposed to exert pressure like a liquid. That it does so may be shown in a variety of ways.
[Pg 57]
If a plunger fitting tightly in a glass cylinder be drawn upward, while the lower end of the tube is under water, the water will rise in the tube (Fig. 30). The common explanation of this is that the water rises because of "suction." The philosophers of the ancient Greeks explained it by saying that "nature abhors a vacuum," and therefore the water rises. Neither explanation is correct. It was found in 1640 that water would not rise in a pump more than 32 ft. despite the fact that a vacuum was maintained above the water. Galileo was applied to for an explanation. He said, "evidently nature's horror of a vacuum does not extend above 32 ft." Galileo began tests upon "the power of a vacuum" but dying left his pupil Torricelli to continue the experiment. Torricelli reasoned that if water would rise 32 ft., then mercury, which is 13.6 times as dense as water, would rise about 1/13 as much. To test this, he performed the following famous experiment.
Fig. 30.—Air pressure forces the liquid up the tube.
53. Torricelli's Experiment (1643).—Take a glass tube about 3 ft. long, sealed at one end, and fill it with mercury. Close the end with the finger and invert, placing the end closed by the finger under mercury in a dish (Fig. 31). Remove the finger and the mercury sinks until the top of the mercury is about 30 in. above the level of the mercury in the dish. Torricelli concluded that the rise of liquids in exhausted tubes is due to the pressure of the atmosphere acting on the surface of the mercury in the dish.
To test this, place the tube with its mercury upon the plate of an air pump and place a tubulated bell jar over[Pg 58] the apparatus so that the tube projects through a tightly fitting stopper. (See Fig. 32.) If the air pressure is the cause of the rise of mercury in the tube, on removing the air from the bell jar the mercury should fall in the tube. This is seen to happen as soon as the pump is started. It is difficult to remove all the air from the receiver so the mercury rarely falls to the same level in the tube as in the dish. A small tube containing mercury is often attached to air pumps to indicate the degree of exhaustion. Such tubes are called manometers.
Fig. 31.—Torricelli's experiment.
Fig. 32.—The mercury drops as the air is removed.
54. The Amount of Atmospheric Pressure.—Torricelli's experiment enables us to compute readily the pressure of the atmosphere, since it is the atmospheric pressure that balances the column of mercury in the tube. By Pascal's Law, the pressure of the atmosphere on the surface of the mercury in the dish is transmitted as an exactly equal pressure on the mercury[Pg 59] column in the tube at the same level as the mercury outside.
This pressure, due to the air, must balance the weight of the column of mercury in the tube. It therefore equals the weight of the column of mercury of unit cross-section. The average height of the column of mercury at sea-level is 76 cm. Since the weight of 1 cc. of mercury is 13.6 grams, the pressure inside the tube at the level of the surface of the mercury in the dish is equal to 1 × 76 × 13.6 or 1033.6 g. per square centimeter. Therefore the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the mercury in the dish is 1033.6 g. per square centimeter, approximately 1 kg. per square centimeter or 15 lbs. per square inch.
55. Pascal's Experiment.—Pascal tested in another way the action of atmospheric pressure upon the column of mercury by requesting his brother-in-law, Perrier, who lived near a mountain, to try the experiment on its top. Perrier found that on ascending 1000 meters the mercury fell 8 cm. in the tube. Travelers, surveyors, and aviators frequently determine the altitude above sea-level by reading the barometer, an ascent of 11 meters giving a fall of about 1 mm. in the mercury column, or 0.1 in. for every 90 ft. of ascent.
Fig. 33.—A standard barometer.
56. The Barometer.—The modern barometer (Fig. 33), consists of a Torricellian tube properly mounted. Reading a barometer consists in accurately reading the height of the mercury column.[Pg 60] This height varies from 75 to 76.5 cm. or 29 to 30 in. in localities not far from the sea-level. The atmospheric pressure varies because of disturbances in the atmosphere. It is found that these disturbances of the atmosphere pass across the country from west to east in a somewhat regular manner, hence a series of readings of the barometer may give reliable information of the movement of these disturbances and so assist in forecasting the weather. The weather Bureau has observations taken at the same moment at various stations over the country. These observations form the basis for the daily forecast of the weather.
Fig. 34.—An aneroid barometer
Another form of barometer in common use is the Aneroid Barometer (Fig. 34). Its essential parts are a cylindrical air-tight box with an elastic corrugated cover. Inside the box is a partial vacuum. This makes the cover very sensitive to slight changes of pressure. The motion of the top of the box is conveyed by a series of levers to an indicating hand which moves over a dial. This[Pg 61] barometer can be made so sensitive as to indicate the change of air pressure from a table top to the floor. It is much used by travelers, explorers, surveying parties and aviators, since the mercurial barometer is inconvenient to carry.

#### Important Topics

1. Weight and Pressure of air in English and metric units. How shown. Evidences.
2. Work of Galileo, Torricelli, and Perrier.
3. Barometer: construction, action, mercurial, aneroid.
Fig. 35.—Air pressure keeps the water In the tumbler.
Fig. 36.—Cross-section of a modern drinking fountain.

#### Exercises

1. Do you think Archimedes' Principle applies to the air? Does Pascal's Law? Why?
2. Find the downward pressure of the mercury in a barometer tube if the cross-section is 1 sq. cm. and the height 75 cm. at the level of the mercury surface in contact with the air. (The density of mercury is 13.6 grams per cc.)
[Pg 62]
3. What is the weight of the air in a room if it is 10 × 8 × 4 meters?
4. What weight of air is in a room 10 × 15 × 10 ft.?
5. When smoke rises in a straight line from chimneys, is it an indication of a high or low barometric pressure? Why?
6. Why does a tumbler filled with water and inverted in a dish with its rim under water remain full?
7. If the barometer tube is inclined the mercury remains at the same horizontal level. How can this be explained?
8. When the mercurial barometer stands at 76 cm., how high would a water barometer stand? Explain.
9. Explain why it is possible for one to suck soda water through a tube?
10. Fill a tumbler with water. Place a sheet of paper over the top and invert. The paper clings to the tumbler and prevents the water from escaping. Explain. (See Fig. 35.)
11. Why must a kerosene oil can have two openings in order to allow the oil to flow freely?
12. Explain the action of the modern drinking fountain (Fig. 36).

### (2) Compressibility and Expansibility of the air

57. Effect of Pressure on Liquids and Gases.—Both classes of fluids, liquids and gases, have many characteristics in common. Both are composed of molecules that move freely; hence both flow. At any point within a fluid the pressure is the same in all directions. Archimedes' Principle applies, therefore, to both liquids and gases.
We now come to an important difference between liquids and gases. Liquids are practically incompressible. "So much so, that if water is subjected to a pressure of 3000 kg. per sq. cm., its volume is reduced only about one-tenth." Gases show a very different behavior from liquids on being subjected to pressure. They may readily be compressed to a small fraction of their volume as is noticed on inflating a pneumatic tire. A gas has also the ability to spring back to a larger volume as soon as the pressure is released, as when a cork is driven from a pop gun. Not[Pg 63] only is compressed air able to expand, but air under ordinary conditions will expand if it is released in a space where the pressure is less.
Hollow bodies, animals and plants, are not crushed by atmospheric pressure, because the air and gases contained within exert as much force outward as the air exerts inward.
58. Boyle's Law.—The relation between the volume and pressure of a gas was first investigated by Robert Boyle in the seventeenth century. The experiment by which he first discovered the law or the relation between the volume and the pressure of a gas is briefly described as follows:
Figs. 37 a and 37 b.—Boyle's law apparatus.
A glass tube is bent in the form of the capital letter J, the short arm being closed. A little mercury is poured in to cover the bend. (See Fig. 37 a.) Since the mercury is at the same level in both arms, the pressure in (A) is the same as in (B). Mercury is now poured into (A) until it stands in the long tube at a height above that in (B) which is equal to the height of the mercury column of the barometer. (See Fig. 37 b.) The air in (BC) is now under a pressure of two atmospheres (one atmosphere is due to the mercury column). On measurement the air in (BC) will be found to have just one-half of its original volume.
Thus doubling the pressure to which a gas is subjected reduces its volume to one-half. Tripling the pressure, reduces the volume to one-third and so on.
[Pg 64]
Careful experiments reveal the following law: The volume of a given mass of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure to which it is subjected.
This law is often expressed mathematically. P/P´ = V´/V, or PV = P´V´. Since doubling the pressure reduces the volume one-half, it doubles the density. Tripling the pressure triples the density. We therefore have P/P´ = D/D´ or the density of a gas directly proportional to its pressure.
Fig. 38.—Height and density of the air.
59. Height of the Atmosphere.—From its properties of compression and expansion, the air varies in density and pressure as one ascends in it. At a height of 3 miles the pressure is reduced to about one-half. This is an indication that one-half of the air is below this level. Balloonists have gone to a height of 7 miles, Glaser and[Pg 65] Coxwell in England in 1862 and Berson in France in 1901. The atmosphere has been explored to a height of 30,500 meters (18.95 miles) by sending up self-registering barometers in small balloons which burst at great altitudes. A parachute protects the instruments from breakage from too rapid fall. This height of 30,500 meters was reached by a balloon sent up by William R. Blair, at Huron, South Dakota, September 1, 1910.
At a height of 35 miles, the density is estimated at 1/30,000 of its value at sea-level. (See Fig. 38.) It is believed that some rarefied air exists for a considerable distance above this point, some estimates placing the extent at 100 miles, and others from 200 to 500 miles. Evidences of some air at such heights are shown by: (a) the height at which meteors first appear, (b) the height of the Aurora Borealis, and (c), the distance that the sun is below the horizon when the last traces of color disappear from the sky in the evening.
Although the exact limits of the atmosphere are unknown, the weight of a column of air 1 sq. cm. in cross-section, and extending upward as high as the atmosphere, may be accurately computed. For this column of air exactly balances the column of mercury in the tube of the barometer.
Below sea-level, the air increases rapidly in density and it is estimated that at a depth of 35 miles, the density of the air would be a thousand times that at the earth's surface, or more than that of water.

#### Important Topics

1. Evidence of compressibility of gases and incompressibility of liquids.
2. Boyle's Law. Proof, applications.
3. Extent of the atmosphere—three evidences.
[Pg 66]
Exercises
1. Mention three illustrations of the compressibility and expansibility of air that you know from your own experience.
2. Increasing the pressure increases the amount of a gas that will be absorbed by a liquid? Explain this. Have you ever observed this fact? Where?
3. If a toy balloon containing 2000 ccm. of gas at the earth's surface where the barometer reading is 76 cm., rises to an elevation where the barometer reads 54 cm., the balloon will tend to expand to what volume? Explain. Will it attain this volume?
4. If a gas is compressed, it changes in temperature. How do you explain this?
5. What change in temperature will occur when compressed air is allowed to expand? Explain.
6. Air blowing up a mountain side has its pressure lessened as it approaches the top. How will this affect the temperature? Why? What may result from this change in temperature? Explain.
7. To what pressure must 500 ccm. of air be subjected to compress it to 300 ccm. the barometer reading at first being 75 cm. Explain.
Fig. 39.—The air pump.

### (3) Pneumatic Appliances

60. The Air Pump.—The air pump is used to remove air or other gases from a closed vessel. It was invented about 1650 by Otto Von Guericke, burgomaster of Magdeburg,[Pg 67] Germany. One form of air pump is shown in Fig. 39. C is a cylinder within which slides a tightly fitting piston. R is the vessel from which the air is to be exhausted. r and u are valves opening upward. The action of the pump is as follows:
On pushing the piston down, the air in C is compressed. This opens valve r allowing the confined air to escape above the piston. The piston is then raised making the space in C a partial vacuum. The pressure in R now being greater than in C, u is pushed up and the air from R rushes into C, until the pressure is equalized. On pushing down the piston again, valve u closes and the process is repeated until the pressure in R is no longer able to raise the valve u. Some air pumps are so constructed that the valves are opened and closed automatically by the movement of the piston. With these pumps a higher degree of rarefaction can be obtained.
Air is often partially exhausted from receivers or vessels by the use of a filter pump or aspirator. A stream of water flowing through a constriction causes a reduced pressure, draws in air and carries it away, and thus produces a partial vacuum. See Fig. 40 for a section of the device.
Fig. 40.—An aspirator.
61. The Condensing Pump.—This is like the exhaust pump except that its valves are reversed. It is used in compressing illuminating gases into cylinders for use in lighting vehicles, stereopticons, Pintsch lights, gas light buoys, etc., and also for compressing air to operate air brakes, pneumatic hammers and drills, and for other uses.
The common condensing pump is the kind used for[Pg 68] inflating tires. (See Fig. 41.) In this, a loosely fitting metal piston is attached to a disc of leather somewhat larger than the cylinder. This device is called a cup valve. On raising the piston, air rushes in from the top past the valve, but on pushing the piston down, the valve is pressed tightly against the sides of the cylinder and prevents the escape of any air. The compressed air pushes open a valve on the tire and enters it. This valve closes as soon as the pressure is lessened from outside. It is well to notice in all of these pumps that two valves are used. One holds the air already secured while the other opens for a new supply. Both valves are never open at the same time.
Fig. 41.—Condensing pump used in inflating tires.
62. Water Pumps.—The Common Lift Pump. This, the simplest pump for raising water, consists of a cylinder C (Fig. 42) connected by a pipe R to a supply of water as a cistern or well. A valve opening upward is placed at the bottom of the cylinder over the entrance to the pipe. In the cylinder is a tightly fitting piston connected by a rod to a lever for ease in action. The piston contains a valve opening upward. In operating this pump water is usually first poured into the cylinder to "prime" it. This helps to close the valves and prevents air leaking past them. When the piston is lowered the lower valve closes, the air in the cylinder being compressed pushes the upper valve open and passes above the piston. On raising the piston the upper valve closes. This forms a partial vacuum in the cylinder.
The air pressing on the surface of the water below forces the water and air that may be in the tube upward through the lower valve to fill this partial vacuum.
[Pg 69]
When the cylinder becomes filled with water, this is lifted out on the up-stroke, whence its name, "lift pump." Since the atmospheric pressure at sea-level can only support a column of water about 34 ft. high, the lower valve must be within this distance of the water surface. In actual practice the limit is about 27 ft. In deeper wells, the cylinder and valves are placed so that they are within 25 or 27 ft. of the surface of the water in the well, a long piston rod reaching above the surface of the ground and connected to a pump handle operates the piston. A discharge pipe extends from the cylinder to the surface of the ground above.
Fig. 42.—The common lift pump.
Fig. 43.—A force pump with an air chamber (A).
63. The Force Pump.—The force pump is used to deliver water under pressure either for spraying or to an elevated reservoir. The piston is solid, the second valve being placed at the entrance of the discharge pipe. (See Fig. 43.) The action is the same as that of the lift pump, with this exception; the piston in its down[Pg 70] stroke forces the water out through the discharge pipe, the velocity depending upon the pressure exerted.
A force pump is usually provided with an air chamber which is connected with the discharge pipe. On the down stroke of the piston, water is forced into the air chamber. This compresses the air it contains. The compressed air reacts and exerts pressure on the water forcing it out in a steady stream.
Force pumps are used in deep wells, being placed at the bottom.
The pumps used in city water works, fire engines, and all steam pumps, are force pumps. (See Fig. 44.)
Fig. 44.—A steam pump used on a fire engine.
64. The Siphon.—The siphon is a tube used to convey a liquid from one level over an elevation to a lower level by atmospheric pressure. It is used to remove liquids from tanks or vessels that have no opening at the bottom.
The siphon cannot be completely understood until one has mastered the laws of the flow of liquids. The following is offered as an incomplete explanation of its behavior. Consider the siphon to be full of water and[Pg 71] closed at d (Fig. 45). Atmospheric pressure on a will hold the siphon full if ab does not exceed 34 feet. If d is opened the water falls out with a speed equal to that acquired in falling from the level of a to that of d. This speed is acquired by all the water in the siphon and results in a drop in pressure throughout it. The pressure at a inside the siphon becomes less than the pressure at the same level outside as soon as the water starts flowing. The water in the vessel then flows into the siphon and out at d. This flow continues as long as there is a fall from the free surface of the water in the vessel to the outlet at d.
Fig. 45.—Cross-section of a siphon.
Fig. 46.—The Cartesian diver.
65. The Cartesian Diver.—This is a device which illustrates at the same time transmission of pressure by liquids, Archimedes' principle, and compressibility of gases. It was invented by Des Cartes (1596-1650). As ordinarily made, it is a hollow glass image with a small opening in the foot. It contains air and water in such amounts that the average density of image and contents is slightly less than that of water. It is placed in a tall glass jar filled with water and covered with tightly stretched rubber tissue. (See Fig. 46.) By pressing on the rubber cover the diver may be made to sink, since the air and water transmit the pressure on the cover which compresses the air inside the figure admitting some water to it, thus making the diver more[Pg 72] dense than water. By varying the pressure it can be made to sink, rise, or remain stationary at will.[D] A small vial can be used instead of the image.
66. Hydraulic Ram.—The hydraulic ram (see Fig. 47) is an automatic device that is much used for raising water from springs to houses located on higher ground. Water flows through the pipe A through the opening at B. The pressure closes the valve at B. The increased pressure in the pipe due to the closing of B opens the valve C and some of the water flows into the air chamber D. This reduces the pressure against the valve B so that it drops and allows a little water to escape. Just as this happens, valve C closes. The pressure in the pipe then closes B and forces water past C. This action being continually repeated, the air in D becomes so compressed that it has elastic force enough to raise the water in a steady stream to a height of many feet.
Fig. 47.—Cross-section of a hydraulic ram.
67. The Balloon.—Since air is a fluid, Archimedes' principle applies to it as well as to liquids. Therefore any object in the air is lifted up by a force equal to the weight of the air it displaces. The object will rise, if it weighs less than this displaced air and will continue to rise until both weights are equal.
The Balloon (Fig. 48) rises because it weighs less than the air it displaces, and therefore it is pushed up by the heavier air, the "lifting power" being the difference between its weight and that of the air displaced. The[Pg 73] neck at the bottom is left open to allow for expansion of the gas. When the aeronaut wishes to descend, he opens a valve at the top allowing some of the gas to escape.
Fig. 48.—Winner of international championship race, Paris, 1913.
Hydrogen is the lightest gas, weighing 0.09 kg. per cubic meter, and so gives the greatest lifting power, but as it is expensive to make, coal gas, density 0.75 kg. per cubic meter, is ordinarily employed. Helium has recently been used to fill military balloons because it cannot be set on fire.
[Pg 74]
The Parachute (Fig. 49) is an umbrella-shaped device for use in descending from a balloon. After falling a few seconds it opens, the large surface exposed to the air causing it to descend slowly. The hole in the top keeps the parachute upright by allowing the air to escape through it, thus relieving the pressure.
Fig. 49.—A parachute.
Fig. 50.—Cross-section of a Westinghouse air brake.
68. The Air Brake.—Compressed air is used to do work in many machines, such as pneumatic drills, hammers, and air brakes. The Westinghouse air brake (Fig. 50) uses air at a pressure of about 70 lbs. to the square inch. The essential parts as shown are a reservoir R, the brake cylinder C and a triple valve V, placed under each car with an air pipe P, leading to the engine. This is connected to R by the triple valve V. When the pressure in P is reduced by the engineer or by accident, the triple valve operates so as to admit air from R into the cylinder C pushing the piston H to the left. H is connected to the brakes by levers which press the brake shoes strongly against the wheels. When the air pressure in P is restored the triple valve acts so as to permit the air in C to escape while R is filled again from P. The hissing sound heard when a train stops is caused by air escaping from cylinder C. The[Pg 75] spring in C keeps the brakes from the wheels except when the "air is on."
Fig. 51.—Cross-section of a gas meter showing its construction and action.
69. The Gas Meter.—The gas meter consists of a box divided into two parts by a vertical partition (Fig. 51). Two bellows are attached to this partition, one on each side. The valves that regulate the flow of gas to and from the bellows and the chambers A and D are opened and closed by levers connected with the bellows. These levers also operate the hands upon the dials. When the inlet to the bellows B is opened, the outlet of A is also opened. Gas entering B opens the bellows and forces the gas in A out into the house-pipe E. When B is full its inlet valve closes and its outlet valve opens. The inlet of A also opens and its outlet closes. Gas now flows into A, compressing the bellows and B, and forcing the gas from it into the house-pipe. At each filling of the bellows B there will be displaced from A and forced into the house-pipe as much gas as enters B. It is evident that at each emptying of B an equal amount of gas enters A. Thus we have A and B alternately filling and emptying as long as the gas burner is open. To have a continuous flow of gas in the house-pipes two pipes and two chambers are[Pg 76] necessary, one being filled while the other is being emptied.
Fig. 52 represents the dials upon a gas meter showing a reading of 54,600 cu. ft.
Fig. 52.—Dials of a gas meter.
70. Centrifugal Pumps. Fluids, such as water and air, are often put in motion by devices called centrifugal pumps (see Art. 78). These pumps contain a revolving part, like a wheel without a rim, whose spokes are replaced by thin blades. This revolving part resembles the paddle wheel of some steam boats and is enclosed in a case or cover having one opening at the rim and another opening on one side about the axle.
Fig. 53.—A vacuum sweeper. (Courtesy of the Hoover Suction Sweeper Co.)
When the wheel is rapidly revolved, the fluid is driven out with considerable force through the opening at the rim, while a partial vacuum is produced at the axle causing a rapid flow into the device at this point.
This is the principle of the action of the vacuum cleaner.[Pg 77] Fig. 53 is a section of a vacuum sweeper showing the revolving wheel and the current of air passing into the wheel at the lower side and out of the rim of the case at the rear.
Centrifugal water pumps work on the same principle and furnish a continuous flow of water, often large in volume and at considerable pressure.

#### Important Topics

1. Air pump.
2. Condensing pump.
3. Lift and force pumps.
4. Siphon.
5. Cartesian diver.
6. Hydraulic ram.
7. Balloon.
8. Air brake.
9. Gas meter.
10. Vacuum cleaner.

#### Exercises

1. Explain why smoke settles to the ground before storms.
2. Why does the water rise in the suction pipe of a pump?
3. Why is it easier to float in water when the lungs are filled with air than when they are not filled?
4. Why is it easier to swim in salt water than in fresh water?
5. How are submarines made to sink? to rise to the surface?
6. How can a fish rise or sink in water?
7. Explain why a life preserver made of cork will enable a person to float.
8. Hold the open hand out flat with the fingers together. Place underneath the fingers a piece of paper. Blow between the first and second fingers against the paper. As long as you blow hard the paper will not fall but will stick to the hand. Explain.
9. Why does pressing the bulb of an atomizer force out the liquid in a fine spray?
10. Why is air that contains a large amount of water vapor lighter than air that only contains a small amount?
11. How are heights above sea-level ascertained by a barometer?
12. Oil floats on water but sinks in alcohol. Explain.
13. In a balloon the lower end is often open to the air. Why does not the gas escape and prevent the balloon from rising?
14. How long will a balloon continue to rise?
[Pg 78]
15. If the pressure against the 8-in. piston of an air brake is 70 lbs. per square inch, how much force does the piston exert?
16. The capacity of a balloon is 40,000 cu. ft. The weight of the balloon, car, etc., is 600 lbs.; specific gravity of the gas used is 0.46 that of the air. Find how much weight the balloon can carry.
17. The so-called Magdeburg hemispheres were invented by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg, Germany. When the hemispheres (see Fig. 54) are placed in contact and the air exhausted it is found very difficult to pull them apart. Explain.
18. Von Guericke's hemispheres had an inside diameter of 22 in. What force would be required to pull them apart if all the air were exhausted from them? (Find the atmospheric force on a circle, 22 in. in diameter.)
19. Von Guericke made a water barometer whose top extended through the roof of his house. On the top of the water in the tube was placed a wooden image. In fair weather the image appeared above the roof, but it descended before a storm. Explain.
20. The balloon "Goodyear" (Fig. 48), which won the International championship race at Paris in 1913, has a capacity of 80,000 cu. ft. The gas bag weighs 653 lbs., the net 240 lbs. and the basket 92 lbs. How large a load can it carry when filled with hydrogen specific gravity 0.069 (compared with air).
Fig. 54.—Magdeburg hemispheres.

#### Review Outline: Liquids and Gases

Liquids: Force, pressure, and density. Floating and immersed bodies. Laws: Liquid force, F = A.h.d, Pascal's, Archimedes. Illustrations and Applications:
Specific gravity, W_{a}/(W_{a} - W_{w}), (W_{a} - W_{l})/(W_{a} - W_{w}), Boyle's, PV = P´V´
Devices: Hydraulic press, air cushion, barometer—mercurial and aneroid. Pumps, lift, force, vacuum, compression, centrifugal, balloon, siphon, etc. Construction and action of each.